Wolfgang Tomaschitz & Michael Shorny
Was meinen wir mit »Inter«? – ein zweiter Anlauf
Einleitung Polylog 41
Inter: Wo ist das »Zwischen« anzusiedeln?
The problem of the demarcation of cultures and the constructive character of the concept led to a discomfort with the term »intercultural philosophy«. But also the »inter« is at stake: Can there be an »in-between«, an interaction between cultures? Who is allowed to speak for and represent a »culture«?
Philosophical interactions always take place between philosophers, each of them embedded in very specific local and theoretical conditions, which do not represent a whole culture. Moreover, not only the place, but also factors such as ethnicity, race or gender – and, thus, a specific relation to power and oppression structures – have a decisive influence on philosophical work. In this respect, one of the challenges of intercultural philosophy is not only to include philosophical traditions and concepts from other regions of the world in the discourse, but also to critically question power structures and asymmetries in philosophical discourses and academic institutions.
Interkulturelle Philosophie als Versprechen
In my dialogue with the contributions of polylog 40 and 41, I have come to the conclusion that the space of the in-between (Dazwischen) in which intercultural philosophy exists should be understood as an utopian place and taken as a promise. Intercultural philosophy consists of an open-ended and ongoing dialogue/polylogue between different cultures, a dialogue that not only operates in an interdisciplinary and politically aware manner, but also makes use of different aesthetic media. Intercultural, interpersonal and intermedial philosophy thereby transcends disciplinary boundaries and becomes an empirical science/art.
Inter Macht Kultur
Considering the notion of »inter« in intercultural philosophy this contribution focusses on two dimensions, the notion of culture and the notion of power. Intercultural philosophy necessarily works with a conception of culture as open, flexible, heterogenous and overlapping. Some authors call this a transcultural approach whereas others refer to cultural studies. Following the definition of cultural studies culture is also always related to power and thus I argue – following many authors of polylog 40 and 41 – understanding the »inter« of »cultures« has to imply a concept of power relations within and between cultures or societies. In order to give a more reflected account of the notion of inter and power this contribution refers to arguments of Stuart Hall and Homi K. Bhabha and delineates various theoretical problems and challenges that have to be overcome with developing a theory of power relation in intercultural philosophy.
»Inter« als das »Zwischen« der menschlichen Verbindungen
oder zur Intimität des Wissens als Teilen
The shaping of intercultural philosophy depends on the definition of the »inter« as well as on its intercultural demands, such as the equivalence of philosophical systems of thought, the development of an appropriate hermeneutics, the breaking up of borders or the understanding of the alien. This prefix, which becomes a desideratum, seeks to abolish deficiencies in the notion of philosophy, as purely Western positioning. The question of what this »intermediate« or »inter« can be, is pursued in this article after the interpretation of the Japanese philosopher Tetsuro Watsuji. Understanding the human existence as a dialectical individual-social network, he completes the geo-temporary structure of both individuals and societies. Using his methodology and conceptual assignment, the present work not only attempts to interpret the space of the »inter« as a context of action, but also refers to the consequences for working in the scientific field. »Inter« is, according to this article, a correlative, active sharing of knowledge through a solidary, mutually understanding and equivalent exchange in the »intermediate« of human connections.
Im »Inter« (eine) Statt finden: Polylogisches Philosophieren als Weltgestaltung
Philosophizing always happens in a particular place embedded in a spatial context. In this view, a place is situated in a space which in turn is created by the particular place. In this context, the intercultural philosopher Ram Adhar Mall coined the notion »situated unsituatedness« (orthafte Ortlosigkeit) of philosophy and Bruce Janz formulated the approach of a »philosophy-in-place«. In his article in polylog 40, Elvis Imafidon too makes an issue of the connection between the platiality and universality of philosophy and locates the »inter« in-between them. My question is now: If philosophizing always happens in and from a particular place, where in the inter-space – in which place exactly – intercultural philosophizing takes place? And how does it take (its) place?
In my article, I like to look in more detail at the relationship between place, space and the practice of intercultural philosophizing. I will finally consider the »inter« as an inter-spatial event-place in which mutual intercultural philosophizing takes (its) place. This inter-spatial event-place is to be understood neither as pre- nor as post-philosphical, but as emerging in the very moment in which the polylogue takes (its) place.
Anton Luis Sevilla
Aida (Inter-) als Narrativ
Eine Relektüre der Aidagara-Ethik von Watsuji Tetsurô
In this paper, I reinterpret the ethics of aidagara (betweenness, »inter-«) of Watsuji Tetsurô (1889–1960) as a narrative ethics. I begin by showing that such a re-reading is possible, by examining how Watsuji’s early existentialism shows a concern for the meaning of life, and how his shift to hermeneutics
shows how this private sense of meaning is expressed intersubjectively. These are the theoretical foundations for any narrative approach. I then develop two forms of narrative ethics from this philosophy. First, I examine a »personal narrative ethics,« which I develop via the theories of developmental/personality psychologist Dan P. McAdams (1954–), particularly showing how his view of agency and communion and their development in narrative identity concretely express Watsuji’s »dual-negative structure« between individuality and totality. But I contribute to this narrative psychology using Watsuji, by showing a theory of narrative transformation—seen practically in narrative therapy as »re-storying.« Second, and yet another contribution
to narrative theory, is »historical narrative ethics,« which shows how storying incorporates social and historical elements, and how re-storying can serve to transform these socio-historical narratives as well. In this way, I argue for a narrative re-reading that contributes to Watsuji’s philosophy with an examination of how it might be concretely expressed (and empirically researched), but at the same time contributes from Watsuji’s philosophy with a framework that consolidates narrative formation, transformation, and historical contribution.
Reformhinduismus, Nationalismus und szientistischer Yoga
José Enrique Rodó:
Die Geburt Lateinamerikas aus dem Geist der spirituellen Revolte
REZENSIONEN & TIPPS
Zu: J. Baird Callicott and James McRae (Hg.): Environmental Philosophy in Asian Traditions of Thought. Nr. 41 S. 123-27.
Zu: Sarhan Dhouib (Hg.): Sprache und Diktatur. Formen des Sprechens. Modi des Schweigens. Nr. 41 S. 127-29.
Zu: Gabriele Münnix (Hg.): Über-Setzen. Sprachenvielfalt und interkulturelle Hermeneutik. Nr. 41 S. 130-38.
Interactions between eastern and western cultures. Band I. Nr. 41 S. 140-41.
Landkarten für systemisches Arbeiten. Nr. 41 S. 141.